关于举办“Early detection for managing invasive plant pests and diseases”学术报告会的通知
报告题目：Early detection for managing invasive plant pests and diseases
报 告 人：Dr. James Ridsdill-Smith（澳大利亚植物生物安全研究中心）
报告时间： 4月27日下午3: 00
Research in plant biosecurity helps to protect agricultural production in Australia worth $25 billion. It is estimated that introduced invertebrates cost over $4.7 billion in loss of production and a further $750 million in control costs. Many species of insects and pathogens which attack plant species enter Australia through international trade, by plant introductions, by traditional movement of people and goods, and passively by wind or water. The vast majority are detected at the border and destroyed before entry. The estimated potential impact of 16 selected insect and pathogen threats to Australia averaged $239 million each. Early detection of these exotic plant pests enables eradication or prevention of spread to occur before they cause major losses. Research will give the many federal and state agencies and their industry partner’s tools to improve plant biosecurity. The Plant Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre (PBCRC), involving collaboration between 26 agencies and universities, has been funded to help this process. Surveillance programs are needed for each pest species. Research can provide better design of traps, better placement of traps, development of more specific and baits and pheromones for traps, development of automated smart traps, use of hand held devices to record the collection sites. Fast accurate diagnostics are essential for planning an appropriate response, including detection of virulent biotypes that overcome plant resistance or biotypes that are resistant to fumigants in the case of post-harvest grain insects. Online tools are becoming important for quick accurate identification. Observations by farmers and people without a scientific background can be very important in first noticing invasive species.
In addition invasive insects and pathogens cause losses of ecosystem function and biodiversity in natural ecosystems. The exotic Asian honey bee (Apis cerana), which competes with native bees and European honeybee and carries the varroa mite, was first found in 2007. Sentinel hives are being set at Australian ports to better detect bees and the diseases they may carry. Myrtle rust (Puccinia psidii) which attacks Myrtaceae and has 150 known plant hosts was first found in 2010 and has become well established. Response has changed from eradication to management and containment. Tramp ants, such as fire ants, electric ants and yellow crazy ants are among the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) worst invasive species, impacting on human lifestyle, the environment and agriculture. Red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta) was first found in Australia in 2001. Although $200 million has been spent on an eradication effort it is focusing now on containment and management. This species can reduce biodiversity of native ant communities as well as other invertebrates, snails, amphibians, turtles, reptiles, and birds and impact on crop yields.